city of Zamakshar (Izmukshir), the ruins of which are
situated 25 kilometers southwestward from Tashauz. The
legendary greatness of Izmukshir fortress remained too
few -half ruined adobe walls, which suggest its former
monumentality. The total length of the wall is 1500 meters.
The fortress is dated from III century B.C- III century
A.D. But the real flourishing of Izmukshir should be dated
from the Middle ages- from the epoch of appearance of
new centralised states, which were governed by men of
Turkmen origin. The most well known of those states were
the Powers of Karkhanids, Gaznevids, Seldjuks, Khoresmshahs
and others. Beginning with the IX century there starts
reviving of public life, as in many other regions of the
East. That was the time when Turkmen fortification architecture
had experienced its flourishing -appearance of new fortresses
as well as reviewing of the old ones using styles of building
tradition of architecture of Turkmen tribes.
In front of Izmukshir kala there is a fortification moat
(Turkmens call it "Gara Garymy" or "Gala
Khendegi"). The moat of Turkmen fortresses amount
to 1-16 meters in the depth, and in its width -2-15 meters.